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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 24 Jul 2020 20:57 
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Pedro Miguel Juan Buenaventura Bernadino Marqués y García (1843 - 1918) Nació en Palma de Mallorca. Marqués hizo sus primeros estudios musicales con los profesores Noguera y Montis, y luego con el director italiano O. Foce. Destacó pronto como violinista, trasladándose a París en 1859, donde amplió estudios con Armingaud y Alard. Dos años después ingresó en el Conservatorio parisiense, donde tuvo como profesores a Massart (violín) y Bacin (armonía). De esta época data su amistad con el gran Héctor Berlioz, quien no sólo introdujo en él la inquietud por la composición sinfónica, sino que le dio clases de instrumentación. A los 24 años de edad se instaló en Madrid, en cuyo Conservatorio siguió perfeccionando la armonía con Galiana, el violín con Monasterio y la composición con Emilio Arrieta. Marqués fue violinista de la Sociedad de Conciertos, donde se dieron a conocer con éxito sus primeras obras sinfónicas. Más tarde fue nombrado inspector de las escuelas especiales de música de Madrid y profesor de canto de los colegios de la Inclusa. En el plano didáctico, este hombre modesto, simpático, ha dejado un Pequeño método de violín y La lira de la infancia. En el de la música teatral, contribuyó con algunos éxitos al desarrollo de la zarzuela grande, cuyo modelo había fijado Barbieri en su Jugar con fuego. Además de la ya citada, merecen mencionarse Justos por pecadores (1872), El maestro de Ocaña, Los hijos de la costa, La cruz de fuego, El regalo de boda, El reloj de Lucerna (1884), uno de sus mayores triunfos, El motín de Aranjuez, El diamante rosa, La hoja de parra, Plato del día, muy popular, como El monaguillo, que trascendió las fronteras, Amores nacionales, Los redentores, El guateque, El aquelarre, Magdalena, El zortzico, El dios chico, El centinela, El abate San Martín, Fraternidad, Los tortolitos, El santuario del valle, Verso y prosa, Florinda, Camoens, etc.

Sin embargo, la verdadera importancia de Miguel Marqués, máxime si tenemos en cuenta la escasa aportación al sinfonismo de nuestros compositores románticos, radica en su dedicación constante a este género. En mayo de 1869 Monasterio estrenó la Sinfonía nº 1 en si bemol, cuyo andante se repitió en varias ocasiones en las veladas de la Sociedad de Conciertos. Insistió Marqués con una Segunda Sinfonía en mi bemol (3 de abril 1870). Continuó componiendo oberturas, como la titulada La selva negra (1873), polonesas de conciertos, poemas sinfónicos como La cova del drac, marchas, alcanzando un prestigio mítico como compositor sinfónico al modo moderno, hasta el punto de estrenar una Gran marcha nupcial en 1878, con motivo de las bodas reales entre Alfonso XII y María de las Mercedes. Dos años antes había estrenado su Sinfonía nº 3 en si menor, que fue recibida con indescriptible entusiasmo por el público de la Sociedad de Conciertos. La citada Sociedad decidió editar la partitura, cosa que se realizó, grabándose en la calcografía de Lodre para el editor Antonio Romero y Andía. No se han escuchado en nuestros tiempos las sinfonías de Marqués, tan melódicas y operísticas, pero tan interesantes para comprender un momento clave en el incipiente sinfonismo español. Todavía aportó el músico mallorquín otras dos sinfonías Nº 4 en mi mayor (1878) y Nº 5 en do menor (1880) antes de retirarse a su tierra natal, donde todavía obtuvo un último reconocimiento al estrenar su Himno a honor de Ramón Llull (Palma, 1916).

Para comprender el efecto causado por las obras sinfónicas de Miguel Marqués, algunas de las cuales pasaron a los Conciertos Pasdeloup de París, basta leer, con el consiguiente regocijo, los siguientes párrafos de Peña y Goñi, crítico famoso y valioso de la época, citados por Subirá en sus "Temas Musicales Madrileños": "La sinfonía de Marqués representa una nueva fase de nuestro arte patrio, una innovación atrevida... Ha valido al distinguido maestro el lugar único e indisputable que ocupará mañana en la historia musical de su patria... La sinfonía clásica, la sinfonía de Beethoven, es para el público madrileño, en su inmensa mayoría, matrona añeja y malhumorada, cuyos tiempos pasaron, y que solo algunos curiosos visitan de higos a brevas en el museo arqueológico del arte. Marqués la ha adornado y la ha transformado. Ha lavado su cara con leche de Iris y velutina; ha llenado sus frentes de ricitos a la "dernière", resguardados de la lluvia bajo la techumbre de un sombrero cabriolet; la ha vestido con falda de raso y sobrefalda ceñida, según el último figurín; ha aprisionado sus pies en zapatitos enrejados, jaula transparente y tenue, por la que asoma fina media de color, provocativa. Y la matrona severa y arrugada, convertida en graciosa polla coquetona, se ha dirigido al público, preguntándole con la mayor desenvoltura: "¿Me amas?" Y el público, hecho un sietemesino, ha contestado: "¡Te adoro!".

Fundación Juan March

El anillo de hierro, drama lírico en tres actos (1878). Yo no salgo de mi asombro.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 31 Jul 2020 20:56 
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Georg Joseph Vogler (1749-1814) Vogler was born at Pleichach in Würzburg. His father Jared Vogler was a violin maker and instrument-maker for the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg. The young Vogler studied law and theology in Würzburg and Bamberg, however he had possessed a prodigious talent and interest in music from childhood and continued to pursue that interest as a university student. In the late 1760s he was introduced to the Elector Palatine Karl Theodor, receiving appointment as the latter's almoner at the court in Mannheim in 1770. Vogler became active in composing and performance there, and in 1771 his first major theatrical piece Singspiel – Der Kaufmann von Smyrna was performed for the court.[3] In 1773 he was sponsored by the court to study under the Padre Martini in Bologna. Dissatisfied with the method of that learned theorist, he studied for five months under Francesco Antonio Vallotti at Padua, and met Johann Adolph Hasse in Venice. He afterwards proceeded to Rome, where, having been ordained priest, he was admitted to the famous Academy of Arcadia, made a knight of the Golden Spur, and appointed protonotary and chamberlain to the pope.

On his return to Mannheim in 1775, Vogler was appointed court chaplain and second maestro di cappella. From this position he was able to found a school to educate both amateur and aspiring musicians. His pupils were devoted to him, but he made innumerable enemies, for the principles upon which he taught were opposed to those of all other teachers. Two major musicological contributions followed: Tonwissenschaft und Tonsetzkunst on the theory of harmony, and Stimmbildungskunst on voice training. He also invented a new system of fingering for the harpsichord, a new form of construction for the organ, and from 1778 to 1781 edited the Betrachtungen der Mannheimer Tonschule – a periodical providing analysis of new compositions and essays on music. Mozart condemned the fingering as "miserable", the young composer finding little musical success in Mannheim now musically dominated by Vogler. The proposed change in the construction of the organ consisted of simplifying the mechanism, introducing free-reeds in place of ordinary reed-stops, and substituting unisonous stops for the great "mixtures" then in vogue. Vogler's writings on musical theory, though professedly based upon Vallotti's principles, was to a great extent empirical. Nevertheless, in virtue of a certain substratum of truth which seems to have underlain his new theories, Vogler undoubtedly exercised a powerful influence over the progress of musical science, and numbered among his disciples some of the greatest geniuses of the period.

In 1778 Karl Theodor moved his court to Munich. Vogler temporarily remained in Mannheim before following him there in 1780, but, dissatisfied with the reception accorded to his dramatic compositions, soon quit his post. He went to Paris, where after much hostility his new system was recognized as a continuation of that started by Jean-Philippe Rameau. His organ concerts in the church of St. Sulpice attracted considerable attention. At the request of the royal court, he composed the opera Le Patriotism, which was performed at Versailles. Other works, including Eglė and La Karmesse, ou La Foire flamande, did not attract widespread critical acclaim however. Rather more successful were his tone paintings, performed in his capacity as an organ virtuoso, and Vogler played to packed houses around Europe in 1780s, although critical opinions remained mixed.

In 1786 he was appointed Kapellmeister by Gustav III of Sweden and founded his second music school in Stockholm. His major composition of this period was Gustav Adolf och Ebba Brahe, as well as the Pieces de Clavecin and a series of organ studies and didactic works on musical theory. He attained extraordinary celebrity by his performances on an instrument called the "orchestrion", a species of organ invented by himself. As a member of the Swedish court he visited Saint Petersburg in 1788 where he met the Copenhagen organ builder Kirsnick (one of the first known to use free reeds in organ pipes). Starting in 1790 Vogler changed all the organs he performed on by adding new registers with free reeds. The first organ that was changed was in Rotterdam, and as many as 30 known rebuilds of organs followed. In 1790 he brought this instrument to London, and performed upon it with great effect at the Pantheon, for the concert-room where he also constructed an organ upon his own principles. The abbé's pedal-playing excited great attention. His most popular pieces were a fugue on themes from the Hallelujah Chorus, composed after a visit to the Handel festival at Westminster Abbey, and A Musical Picture for the Organ, by Knecht, containing the imitation of a storm.

In 1792 his royal patron was assassinated, and he embarked upon a series of ambitious travels extended over Spain, Greece, Armenia, remote districts of Asia and Africa, and even Greenland, in search of uncorrupted forms of national melody and the existing traces of ancient musical practices on which Western music was founded. These travels also supplied new exotic themes and folk music traditions that found their way into his later compositions. He returned to Stockholm and remained in residence there until 1799, before once more establishing himself in Germany, where his compositions, both sacred and dramatic, received at last full credit. He also wrote Choral-System in 1800 as a result of his new theory on choral accompaniment. He spent time in Vienna from 1802 to 1804, making the acquaintances of Haydn and Beethoven. His operas Castore e Polluce and Samori received popular acclaim there and he was to gain two ardent disciples – Carl Maria von Weber and Johann Baptist Gänsbacher. Under his tutelage, both would become well known composers in their own right. After Vienna, Vogler continued to travel around Germany. While at Frankfurt in 1807 he received an invitation from Ludwig I, grand duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, offering him the appointment of Kapellmeister, with the order of merit, the title of privy councillor, a salary of 3000 florins, a house, a table supplied from the duke's own kitchen, and other privileges, which determined him to bring his wanderings at last to a close. At Darmstadt he opened his third and most famous music school, the chief ornaments of which were Gänsbacher, Weber, and Giacomo Meyerbeer. One of Vogler's last journeys was to Frankfurt in 1810, to witness the production of Weber's Sylvana. He continued to work hard in old age, and died suddenly of apoplexy at Darmstadt.

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Gustav Adolf och Ebba Brahe, ópera en tres actos (1778). Fragmento.

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Kate Soper (*1981) Soper was born and raised in Ann Arbor, Michigan and studied piano through the University of Michigan Piano Pedagogy Program. She holds a D.M.A. from Columbia University and a B.M. from Rice University. Early musical activities include frequent performances as a piano-based singer-songwriter, study of Indian Karnatic vocal music, and extensive work in the theatre as a sound designer and composer. Her vocal writing incorporates spoken and sung pitches, overtones and unique tuning systems, imitation and adaptation of instrumental timbres and effects, and extended techniques such as abrupt register changes, alternative and mixed singing styles, reverse phonation, and resonance changes. Frequent subjects include the treachery of language and the authenticity/inauthenticity of expression in music, and she has set original texts as well as writings by Lydia Davis, Jorie Graham, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Pietro Bembo, Plato, Freud, André Breton, Christian Bök, and Matha Collins, among others. In addition to composing, Soper performs frequently as a new music soprano in her own works and the works of others, and many of her vocal works were developed with herself in mind as performer. Her compositional style has been deemed "exquisitely quirky" with "seamless commingling of not only lines but of actual instrumentation and fingering with another player."

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Ipsa Dixit, ópera de cámara (2016). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Zelenka escribió:
Dos años antes había estrenado su Sinfonía nº 3 en si menor, que fue recibida con indescriptible entusiasmo por el público de la Sociedad de Conciertos. La citada Sociedad decidió editar la partitura, cosa que se realizó, grabándose en la calcografía de Lodre para el editor Antonio Romero y Andía. No se han escuchado en nuestros tiempos las sinfonías de Marqués, tan melódicas y operísticas, pero tan interesantes para comprender un momento clave en el incipiente sinfonismo español.
Hace como seis o siete años pude escuchar en el Teatro de la Zarzuela esta sinfonía y me pareció fabulosa, en especial un solo de violín que lo podía haber firmado cualquiera de los grandes. Recuerdo que la busqué en YT y no la encontré. Menos mal que Loge reparó tal decepción. Eso sí, acabo de escucharlo y ni rastro del citado solo. :?

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Cuidado con tragarse las óperas de Wagner: son de difícil digestión.


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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Gordon Kerry (*1961) He studied composition at the University of Melbourne under Barry Conyngham. He then worked for the Sydney Festival and resided in Sydney for the next 16 years. After the retirement of Fred Blanks, Kerry was invited to become a music critic for the Sydney Morning Herald. In April 1997 he was appointed artistic administrator for Musica Viva Australia, a post he held for 18 months but left as he had too little time to compose. He then became the organisation's musical adviser. He also contributes pieces for Limelight and The Australian's Review of Books. In 2009, he was awarded the Ian Potter Established Composer Fellowship. His book New Classical Music: Composing Australia was published by UNSW Press in 2009.

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Medea, ópera de cámara (1993). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Georg Christoph Wagenseil (1715-1777) He was born in Vienna. Wagenseil’s father and maternal grandfather were functionaries at the Viennese imperial court. In his teens he began to compose keyboard pieces and to receive keyboard instruction with the organist of the Michaelerkirche in Vienna, Adam Weger. His accomplishments brought him to the attention of the court Kapellmeister, Johann Joseph Fux, who recommended him for a court scholarship in 1735; for the next three years he received intensive instruction in keyboard playing, counterpoint and composition from his sponsor and from Matteo Palotta. As a result of an enthusiastic endorsement from Fux, Wagenseil was appointed composer to the court on 6 February 1739, a post he held until his death. He also served as organist from 1741 to 1750 in the private chapel of Empress Elisabeth Christine (widow of Charles VI), and in 1749 became Hofklaviermeister to the imperial archduchesses. To the latter he dedicated four sets of divertimentos, which were engraved and issued as opp.1–4 by Bernardi of Vienna (1753–63).

Wagenseil travelled to Venice in 1745 to supervise the production of his first opera, Ariodante, and in 1759–60 he was in Milan for a performance of Demetrio. In the mid-1750s uncommonly generous publication privileges granted by Parisian printers brought about a flood of instrumental compositions, particularly symphonies, which raised him to international prominence, and which were undoubtedly responsible for Burney’s high opinion of him. Among those acquainted with his music was the young Mozart, who played one of Wagenseil’s concertos before Maria Theresa in 1762 and several keyboard pieces at the English court in 1764. Haydn was likewise familiar both with numerous instrumental works, as entries in the so-called Quartbuch show, and with Wagenseil’s operas, which found their way to Eisenstadt.

Wagenseil was also renowned as a keyboard virtuoso, and elicited the highest praise from contemporaries such as C.F.D. Schubart (who remarked that Wagenseil ‘played with extraordinary expressive power and was capable of improvising a fugue with great thoroughness’). But from about 1765 steadily worsening lameness and an attack of gout which affected his left hand curtailed his activities at court and eventually confined him to his quarters where, according to Burney, who visited him on several occasions, he continued to compose and to teach. Among Wagenseil’s pupils were Leopold Hofmann, J.A. Štěpán, F.X. Dušek, Johann Gallus-Mederitsch, G.A. Matielli, P. le Roy, the brothers Franz and Anton Teyber, and J.B. Schenk. The last, who began instruction in 1774, provided in his autobiography a detailed account of his mentor’s teaching methods which, not surprisingly, were based on Fux (a legacy Schenk was then to transmit to Beethoven later in the century) but which were also remarkable for their time in drawing on Handel and Bach.

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Il Siroe, dramma per musica en tres actos (1748). Aria: La sorte mia tiranna. Aria: Esci, crudel, d'affanno.

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Esa fue la viñeta No. 600.

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Esa fue la viñeta No. 600.

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:aplauso:


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James Dillon (*1950) He was born in Glasgow, Scotland. Dillon is self-taught as a composer. He had early experiences with traditional music for bagpipes and played with his band Influx in the late 1960s. He studied art and design at the Glasgow School of Art in 1968, linguistics at University College London in 1970 and piano with Eleanor Purse in 1970–71. He later studied acoustics at the University of North London in 1971, rhythms of music from India with Punita Gupta in 1971–72 and mathematics with Gordon Millar at the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in London in 1972 and attended seminars on computer music at IRCAM in Paris in 1984–85. He received an honorary doctorate from the University of Huddersfield in 2003.

Among his honours are First Prize in the competition of the Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival in West Yorkshire (1978), the Kranichsteiner Musikpreis at the Ferienkurse in Darmstadt (1982), the title Classical Musician of the Year from The Sunday Times in London (1989), a fellowship from the Japan Foundation in Tōkyō (1996), and five prizes in the Royal Philharmonic Society Music Awards (Chamber-Scale Composition, 1997, for Traumwerk, Book 1; Chamber-Scale Composition, 2002, for The Book of Elements 5; Chamber-Scale Composition, 2005, for String Quartet No. 4; Large-Scale Composition, 2010, for Nine Rivers; Chamber-Scale Composition, 2017, for Tanz/Haus: triptych 2017). Retrospectives of his music have been given in Paris (1985), Oslo (1989), Toulouse (1991), Brussels (1992), and New York, New York (2001).

He taught at the Ferienkurse in Darmstadt from 1982–92, directed the faculty of composition at the Gothenburg Summer Academy in 1991 and served as co-composer-in-residence with Brian Ferneyhough at the Fondation Royaumont in 1996. He taught as a guest composer at Goldsmiths, University of London in 1989–90 and in 1991–92 and at Birmingham City University in 1993–94 and in 1995–96. He taught as International Distinguished Fellow at New York University in 2001–02. He later taught as Professor of Composition at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis from 2007–14, now emeritus. He has given guest lectures in Australia, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, the UK, and the USA.

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Philomela, music theatre in 5 acts (2004). Fragmento.

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Heiner Goebbels (*1952) He was born in Neustadt an der Weinstraße. Goebbels, who studied sociology and music in Frankfurt am Main, is a composer of ensemble works and compositions for large orchestra. He has created several prize-winning radio plays, staged concerts, and, since the early 1990s, music theatre works, which have been invited to the most important theatre and music festivals worldwide. Goebbels and Alfred Harth were musical partners in the Duo Goebbels/Harth (1975-1988) who co-founded the wind band Sogenanntes Linksradikales Blasorchester (1976-1981) and the avant-rock group Cassiber (1982–1992) with Alfred Harth, Chris Cutler and Christoph Anders. They toured extensively across Europe, Asia and North America, and made five albums. In October 1983 Cassiber (minus Anders) joined Duck and Cover, commissioned for the 1983 Moers Festival at the request of festival director Burkhard Hennen to Alfred Harth, followed by a performance at the Berlin Jazz Festival in West Berlin, and by another in February 1984 in East Berlin. Goebbels' work is being increasingly acknowledged as he is being played and staged around the world and as his recordings are being published. He collaborated with the finest ensembles and orchestras - Ensemble Modern, Ensemble Intercontemporain, Ensemble musikFabrik, Asko/Schönberg, Berg Orchestra, Berlin Philharmonic, Bochumer Symphoniker, Junge Deutsche Philharmonie, Brooklyn Philharmonic and many others and worked with conductors like Sir Simon Rattle, Peter Eotvos, Lothar Zagrosek, Peter Rundel, Steven Sloane and many others. In 2000 he collaborated with Piano Circus and composer Richard Harris to produce Scutigeras, which received a live BBC radio premiere in the UK. His Surrogate Cities, a work for big orchestra dating from 1994 and featuring texts from Paul Auster, Heiner Müller, and Hugo Hamilton, has been performed widely in Europe, the US and Australia and was nominated for a Grammy in the category Best Classical Contemporary Composition at the 43rd Grammy Awards in 2001. His Eislermaterial won him another Grammy nomination at the 46th Grammy Awards in 2004, this time in the category Best Small Ensemble Performance (with or without conductor).

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Landschaft mit entfernten Verwandten, ópera (2002). Fragmento.

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Mauro Cardi (*1955) He was born in Rome. Trained at the "Santa Cecilia" Conservatoire of Rome, under the guidance of Irma Ravinale, Gino Marinuzzi jr., Guido Turchi, he graduated in composition, instrumentation for wind orchestra and choral music. In 1982, he received his first international recognition, winning the "Valentino Bucchi Prize" with Melos, for soprano and orchestra. Crucial was the encounter with Franco Donatoni, with which he furthered his education at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia and the Accademia Musicale Chigiana of Siena. In 1984, he attended the Darmstädter Ferienkurse. In the same year his composition Les Masques, Quattro Bagatelle for flute viola and guitar, was awarded the prestigious Gaudeamus Prize in Amsterdam. In 1987, he was selected to represent Italy at the International Rostrum of Composers by UNESCO. In 1988, he won the second prize at the International Competition Gian Francesco Malipiero with In Corde, for orchestra.[9][1] He composed also several works commissioned by institutions and associations such as: RAI, Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, Biennale di Venezia, Ravenna Festival, Ville de Genève, Fondazione Malipiero, Centro Studi Armando Gentilucci, Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, Nuova Consonanza.

While his early works have been influenced by Donatoni, to which he devoted also an extensive analytical study, Mauro Cardi soon developed his individual style, focusing his research on "musical forms moulded by timbre and sound intuitions, with unexpectedly expressive moments". His poetics reflects his natural aptitude to contrapuntal writing and his fascination with logic and the symbolic value of numbers, attracted to the playful dimension involved in composing. In 1995, on a commission by the Accademia Filarmonica Romana, he composed his first opera, Nessuna Coincidenza, one-act stage action with music. In 1998 BMG Ricordi published the monographic CD Manao Tupupau, containing his major works of the 1990th. From 2000 to 2008, on a commission of the 52nd Biennale di Venezia, he composed Oggetto d'amore, a cycle of seven musical scenes on texts by Pasquale Panella, premiered in Venezia and published in CD format by RAI Trade in 2009, which concludes his long collaboration with Sonia Bergamasco and the Freon Ensemble.

Founding member of the "Scuola popolare di musica di Testaccio" (Rome), where he taught until 1998, he is a member of Nuova Consonanza from 1988, of which he has been President from 1999 to 2001. He has been professor at the Luigi Cherubini Firenze State Conservatoire, and he currently teaches at the Alfredo Casella State Conservatoire of L'Aquila. He gives seminars and composition workshops in Italy and abroad. Mauro Cardi's compositions have been published by: Casa Ricordi, RAI Trade, Curci, Edipan, Ut Orpheus, Semar, Sconfinarte, Taukay; and have been recorded by the labels: Ricordi, RCA, BMG Ariola, Nuova Fonit Cetra, RAI Trade, Edipan, Adda Records, Happy New Ears, Il manifesto, CNI, Taukay.

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Oggetto d'amore, teatro musical (2000-2008). Fragmento.

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Ingeborg Bronsart von Schellendorf (born Ingeborg Lena Starck, 1840-1913) She was born in Saint Petersburg. Ingeborg Starck was the daughter of Finnish parents Margareta Åkerman and Otto Starck who were living in Saint Petersburg, Russia, where her father was involved in commerce. Having shown musical gifts from a young age, studied piano with Nicolas von Martinoff and Adolf Henselt, as well as composition with Constantin Decker. She completed her studies in Weimar with Franz Liszt. During a stay in Paris in 1861 her friends included composers such as Auber, Berlioz, Rossini and Wagner (who commented in his autobiography on her good looks). In September of the same year, she married fellow pianist-composer Hans Bronsart von Schellendorff, a member of Liszt's circle whom she had met in Weimar. Ingeborg Bronsart von Schellendorf, as she was now known, toured Europe as a concert pianist until 1867, when she was expected to cease work due to her husband's appointment as general manager of the Royal Theatre in Hanover. She remained musically active, however, as a composer of opera, chamber and instrumental music and a large number of songs. Earlier, she had composed a piano concerto (1863). During her lifetime her operas were successfully produced in many theatres in Germany. Pieces composed by her which were popular at the time included her Kaiser Wilhelm March (1871), the Singspiel Jery und Bätely (1873) and the opera Hiarne (1891).

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Jery und Bätely, Singspiel (1871-1872). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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José Martínez Barajas (1941-2016) Nació en Tecalitlán, Jalisco, siendo el quinto de nueve hijos del humilde matrimonio conformado por Blas Martínez Panduro y la señora Rosario Barajas. Se inició en la música gracias a su padre, ya que este ejerció como arpero y perteneció al Mariachi Vargas durante la década de 1940, gracias a una invitación de Silvestre Vargas. A los 8 años, junto a su familia, se trasladan a Guadalajara, donde comenzó a estudiar informalmente varios instrumentos de mariachi, y ya para los 10 años comenzó a cantar en el transporte público. Finalmente se interesó en el violín, y a los 13 años ya tocaba junto a su padre en el Mariachi Los Charros de Jalisco, perteneciente al IV Regimiento de infantería del Ejército Mexicano. Durante su permanencia, su talento llamó la atención del general Bonifacio Salinas, quien le otorgó una beca por tres años para realizar estudios de violín con el profesor Ignacio Camarena, de armonía con Higinio Velázquez y de solfeo con Luis H. Rivera, logrando concluir sus estudios antes de los tres años. Luego de salir del ejército, a los 15 años fundó el Mariachi Los Tigres de Jalisco el cual duró menos de un año; posteriormente se traslada a Ciudad de México para integrarse al Mariachi Perla de Occidente, un grupo del cual posteriormente saldrían músicos que integrarían conjuntos como el conocido Mariachi Vargas. Durante este periodo adquirió experiencias importantes, entre ellas grabar con cantantes como Javier Solís y presentarse en escenarios famosos de la época, como el Teatro Blanquita.

De nuevo en Guadalajara, fundó el Mariachi los Tecolotes en 1961, en donde grabó sus primeros arreglos musicales para un álbum histórico del grupo; para el mismo año viaja al sur de California para integrarse al Mariachi Águila, donde permanece durante cinco años en uno de los dos mejores mariachis de Estados Unidos en aquel entonces. En 1965 Pepe y su hermano Fernando Martínez fundan el Mariachi Nuevo Tecalitlán, para lo cual seleccionaron a los mejores elementos disponibles en Guadalajara, y a quienes Pepe enseñó a leer música, además de reunirlos cada semana para estudiar y ensayar, convirtiéndose en un mariachi que se destacó por la calidad de sus arreglos. Inicialmente la agrupación tocaba para el restaurante Cazadores campestre, en Tlaquepaque (de 1968 a 1995), a la vez que se presentaban en diferentes programas musicales populares en la época, como Siempre en Domingo y México, magia y encuentro. Progresivamente el grupo se convirtió en uno de los más prolíficos de todos los tiempos -en términos de discos grabados-. Fue en este periodo cuando perfeccionó sus dotes como arreglista, llegando a grabar más de 500 arreglos originales en más de 100 discos de larga duración. Posteriormente, en 1975 Pepe se retira del grupo, dejando a Fernando la dirección del mismo (el cual desempeña hasta su fallecimiento, en 1998).

Pepe ingresó al Mariachi Vargas en 1975 como violinista y director musical, por invitación de Silvestre Vargas y Rubén Fuentes, sustituyendo a Jesús Rodríguez de Hijar (quien en ese mismo año crea su Mariachi de América). Para entonces, en el Vargas se estableció un patrón en la grabación de discos -iniciado a finales de los sesenta-, en la que cada conjunto de instrumentos se grababa por separado, se hacía la mezcla, y finalmente se agregaba la voz. Para 1976 se inicia el movimiento de enseñanza y difusión de la música de mariachi en San Antonio (Texas), conocidos como mariachi conferences (encuentros de mariachi)., en los cuales Martínez fue el principal coordinador de los talleres que el Vargas aplicaba en aquel estado. Dichos talleres se siguen dictando allí, así como en Houston, Chicago, en el estado de California y en Jalisco. Para 2012, y llevando más de 35 años en el Vargas, José comenzó a manifestar síntomas dados por fallas a la hora de responder en las conversaciones, al marcar el ritmo de cada canción en las presentaciones con el grupo, y que se hicieron con el tiempo más manifiestos, lo que hizo que sus apariciones en público se hicieras menos frecuentes, hasta que se vio obligado a retirarse de la dirección musical del Mariachi en 2013; fue para aquel entonces cuando se le diagnosticó demencia vascular. Ya retirado del grupo, permaneció en compañía de su familia y asistiendo a talleres para personas con otras patologías neurodegenerativas, mientras las manifestaciones de su enfermedad fueron progresando con el tiempo. En 2016 se hicieron más notorios sus quebrantos de salud, por lo que fue hospitalizado en un centro de salud de Guadalajara donde permaneció por más de una semana, hasta que, por complicaciones respiratorias falleció en la noche del sábado 23 de abril.

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Cruzar la cara de la luna, ópera mariachi (2008). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Henrik Hellstenius (*1963) Born in Bærum, Norway, Hellstenius studied musicology at the University of Oslo and composition with Lasse Thoresen, Olav Anton Thommessen and Bjørn Kruse at the Norwegian Academy of Music in Oslo. He studied in 1992–1993 with Gérard Grisey at the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse de Paris in Paris, and he also studied computer-supported composition at IRCAM. Hellstenius is currently professor in composition and music theory at the Norwegian Academy of Music. Hellstenius’ compositional output spans a wide stylistic field, including opera, chamber music, orchestral works, electro-acoustic music and scores for theatre, film and ballet. His works have seen performances throughout the Nordics, Russia, Australia, the U.S., Canada, England, Scotland, Greece, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Germany, France, Holland and Japan. His works have been featured at festivals such as the Bourges Festival for electro-acoustic music in France, the International Rostrum for Composers in Paris, the DUT-festival in Copenhagen, Nordic Music Days and the ULTIMA Oslo Contemporary Music Festival, performed by ensembles Cikada, Oslo Sinfonietta, BIT20 Ensemble and Ensemble Court Circuit. Hellstenius has also penned scores for a number of stage productions. In addition to his two operas, Sera and Ophelia: Death by Water Singing – both premiered at the ULTIMA Oslo Contemporary Music Festival and later performed in Poland and Germany – Hellstenius has also worked closely with playwrights Jon Fosse, Cecilie Løveid, Liv Heløe as well as choreographer Ingun Bjørnsgaard. Hellstenius is also focusing on other forms of stage productions including instrumental theatre or staged concerts. An example of this compositional practice is the project Ørets Teater I.IV, premiered at the 2011 Bergen International Festival, for which Hellstenius was composer in residence. Following its premiere, the work was adapted and rewritten for a 2015 ULTIMA Oslo Contemporary Music Festival performance. For the 2014/2015 concert season, Hellstenius was the Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra’s profile composer.

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Sera, ópera en un acto (1999-2003). Fragmento.

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Ophelias : Death by water singing, ópera (2005). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Giovanni Battista Bononcini (1670-1747) He was born in Modena, Italy, the oldest of three sons. His father, Giovanni Maria Bononcini (1642–1678), was a violinist and a composer, and his younger brother, Antonio Maria Bononcini, was also a composer. An orphan from the age of 8, Giovanni Battista studied in the music school of Giovanni Paolo Colonna at San Petronio Basilica in Bologna (perhaps in 1680 or 1681). In 1685, at the age of 15, he published three collections of instrumental works (in two of which he gave his age as 13). On 30 May 1686, he was accepted as a member of the prestigious Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna. His services were already much in demand: he worked at San Petronio as a string player and singer, published further collections of instrumental pieces, and produced two oratorios for performance in Bologna and Modena. From 1687 to 1691 he served as maestro di cappella at the church of San Giovanni in Monte in Bologna, for which he composed a set of masses) for double choir which were published in 1688 as his op.7. In 1690 he composed a further oratorio for Modena. He also spent some time in Milan in 1689 and 1690. In 1691 he dedicated a set of vocal duets to Emperor Leopold I and played in the orchestra of the Cardinal Legate of Bologna, Benedetto Pamphili.

In the same year, he moved to Rome, where he entered the service of Filippo II Colonna, a powerful patron of the arts, for whom Bononcini, along with Colonna's librettist, Silvio Stampiglia, produced six serenatas, an oratorio and at three (possibly five) operas between 1692 and 1696, including the highly successful Xerse (1694). Another successful opera, Il trionfo di Camilla was produced in Naples (in 1696 or 1697) following the appointment of Colonna's brother-in-law, Luigi della Cerda, as Spain's local viceroy. Between 1695 and 1696, Bononcini was made a member of two of Rome's most exclusive artistic circles, the musical Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia and the literary Accademia degli Arcadi (in which he was one of seven musicians proposed as founding members of a "chorus", or performance arm). Around this time, the eclectic musician and poet Giuseppe Valentini wrote a sonnet in praise of Bononcini's teaching abilities. Following the death of Colonna's wife Lorenza in August 1697, Bononcini left Rome for Vienna, where he entered the service of Emperor Leopold I with a large salary and also established himself as the favoured composer of Leopold's heir and successor, Joseph. In 1702, following the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession Bononcini moved to the court of Queen Sophia Charlotte in Berlin, where he became the queen's favourite composer and broadened his public reputation with a production of a new opera, Polifemo (he also composed Cefalo there).

Although his activities in the next decade are less well documented, he appears to have been in Venice for the production of a new opera during the carnival of 1706. By this time Bononcini had an enviable international reputation: in the words of his fellow composer Francesco Geminiani, Camilla had "astonished the musical world by its departure from the dry, flat melody to which their ears had until then been accustomed". By 1710, productions of Camilla (presumably based on Bononcini's version) had reached London as well as many cities across Italy. At some time during this decade on one of his sojourns to Italy, he married Margherita Balletti. She came from a family of actors and commedia dell'arte players and was the sister-in-law of Luigi Riccoboni. From 1720 to 1732 he was in London, where for a time his popularity rivaled George Frideric Handel's, who had arrived in London in 1712. The Whig party favored Handel, while the Tories favored Bononcini. Their competition inspired the epigram by John Byrom that made the phrase "Tweedledum and Tweedledee" famous. Handel steadily gained the ascendancy, and Bononcini became a pensioner of the Duchess of Marlborough, who had led his admirers. Bononcini left London after charges of plagiarism were proven against him: he had palmed off a madrigal by Antonio Lotti as his own work.

After leaving London in 1733, Bononcini travelled to France in the company of an adventurer, Count Ughi, who swindled him out of most of his property. In Paris Bononcini gave concerts of his religious music at the Concert Spirituel and then moved on to Lisbon to become the cello teacher to the Portuguese king. In 1736 he returned to Vienna, where his opera Alessandro in Sidone and his oratorio Ezechia were performed in 1737. In dire financial straits by 1742, he petitioned Maria Theresa of Austria for help. In October of that year she granted him a pension of 50 Florins a month in recognition of his past service to the court. Bononcini died on 9 July 1747 in Vienna, impoverished and largely forgotten. After his death, his last major composition, a Te Deum which he had composed in 1741 for Francis I, was performed in celebration of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

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Polifemo, ópera (1702). Aria: Cor contento fra catene. Aria: Vanarella, pazzarella.

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