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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 09 Ago 2019 23:54 
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Andrea Lorenzo Scartazzini (*1971) Born in Basel, he studied there German studies and Italian studies. He changed to studying composition with Rudolf Kelterborn at the Musikhochschule Basel, which he continued with Wolfgang Rihm in Karlsruhe. In 1999/2000, he studied one semester at the Royal Academy of Music. He has worked as a composer, and in the beginning also as a music teacher. His works have been performed at major festivals such as the Salzburg Easter Festival, Lucerne Festival and Darmstädter Ferienkurse. They have been played by ensembles such as Kammerorchester Basel, Collegium Novum Zürich, Ensemble Contrechamps, Ensemble intercontemporain and Ensemble Phoenix. He composed in 2008 Siegel for the Basel Sinfonietta, who premiered it with Claudia Barainsky, conducted by Peter Hirsch. The ensemble premiered in 2012 his Viaggiatori, composed for the centenary of the Basler Bach-Chor. He was in 2004/05 composer in residence at the Witten/Herdecke University. In 2006, his opera Wut premiered at the Theater Erfurt. In 2012, his opera Der Sandmann on a libretto by Thomas Jonigk premiered at the Theater Basel which had commissioned the opera, staged by Christof Loy. His opera Edward II. premiered in February 2017 at the Deutsche Oper Berlin, conducted by Thomas Søndergård and staged again by Loy. Scartazzini received several awards, including the Jacob Burckhardt Prize of the Goethe Foundation Basel (Johann-Wolfgang-von-Goethe-Stiftung), and the study prize (Förderpreis) of the Ernst von Siemens Music Prize in 2000.

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Der Sandmann, ópera en diez escenas (2016). Fragmento.

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Edward II., ópera en diez escenas (2017). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 16 Ago 2019 17:44 
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Richard Thompson is a performer and composer whose work encompasses jazz and Third Stream composition. Originally from Aberdeen, Scotland, Mr. Thompson made his debut at the Purcell Room, Queen Elizabeth Hall in London. He has appeared in live broadcasts for BBC Jazz and Classical Radio, Italian National Television and Radio and also given concerts at La Piccola Scala in Milan, among many others. Mr. Thompson’s orchestral appearances include concerts with the Harlem Festival Orchestra; the Boston Orchestra and Chorale; the Glasgow Chamber Orchestra; and the Aberdeen Chamber Orchestra. In 1999 Mr. Thompson was awarded the first Individual Artist Award for classical music composition from the Brooklyn Arts Council. His winning piece, Legend of the Moors -a musical depiction of the presence and influence of the Moors in Spain during the Middle Ages- was premiered at the Brooklyn Conservatory. The following year Mr. Thompson’s orchestral piece Voices was premiered by the Long Island Sound Symphony Orchestra (under the direction of Dorothy Savitch). A discussion of some of Mr. Thompson’s compositions appears in the textbook African-American Music, An Introduction by Dr. Earl L. Stewart, published by Simon and Schuster Macmillan/Prentice Hall International. Mr. Thompson’s song cycle The Shadow of Dawn had its world premiere by the Manhattan Chamber Orchestra in 2000 at Merkin Hall, New York City. The performance—under the direction of Richard Auldon Clark—featured Christine Moore, soprano. The inspiration for this song cycle is the work of African American poet Paul Laurence Dunbar.

Mr. Thompson’s chamber opera, The Mask in the Mirror -a dramatization of the courtship and marriage of poet Paul Laurence Dunbar to Alice Ruth Moore- was premiered in 2012 by Trilogy Opera, based in Newark New Jersey, under the artistic directorship of Kevin Maynor. Mr. Thompson was commissioned by the city of San Diego and Caltrans in 2012 to compose a musical tribute to Martin Luther King Jr. to accompany the installation of a mural by artist Philip Matzigkeit which depicts the life and work of Martin Luther King Jr. The piece, I Have Dream, is scored for jazz quintet; male jazz singer; and choir, and was first performed in October 2012. Songs of Solitude, commissioned by soprano Marquita Lister, is a song cycle featuring the poems of Rudi Cleare. Mr. Thompson earned his undergraduate degree in music from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland; his Master’s Degree from Rutgers University in New Jersey; and a jazz diploma from the Berklee College of Music in Boston. While at Rutgers University, Mr. Thompson studied jazz piano with Kenny Barron and classical piano with Theodore Lettvin. Mr. Thompson is currently Associate Professor of Music at San Diego State University, where he teaches theory, jazz performance, and history. He performs frequently in both jazz and classical concerts as a soloist and in many chamber groups, including his own jazz quintet.

The Mask in the Mirror, ópera de cámara en tres actos (2012). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 23 Ago 2019 13:24 
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Joseph Summer (*1956) He was born in Tennessee. Summer began playing the French horn at the age of seven. While attending the Eastern Music Festival in North Carolina at age thirteen he was fortunate to be allowed to study composition with the eminent Czech composer Karel Husa. Two years later he was accepted at Oberlin Conservatory, graduating with a BM in Music Composition in 1976. Recruited by Robert Page to teach at Carnegie Mellon University, Joseph spent two years teaching music theory before leaving to pursue composition full time. In 1981, with assistance from the National Endowment for the Arts, The Tenor’s Suite, Summer’s one act tragedy based on The Tenor by Frank Wedekind was produced in Philadelphia, fully staged through a piano reduction. This lead to Summer creating the Contemporary Opera Company of America. The company, over a two year span, concentrated on producing operas by living American composers, including Summer’s own Hippolytus, with fully staged double piano reduction performances in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia.

For the next twenty years Joseph Summer concentrated his efforts composing a series of comic operas based on the bawdy stories of Boccaccio’s The Decameron. These consist of four completed works: And The Dead Shall Walk The Earth; Courting Disaster; Their Fate In The Hands Of The Friar; and Gianetta. The fifth in a projected cycle of seven: Also Known As is currently in progress. In 2003 Summer founded The Shakespeare Concerts, which has presented more than forty compositions from Summer’s ever expanding collection of settings of the bard’s ever living texts, which he titles The Oxford Songs, (titled thus due to Summer’s support of Edward De Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, as the likely identity of the author also known as William Shakespeare.) In addition to the individual scenes, sonnets, and songs from Shakespeare collected in the aforementioned collection, Summer completed the opera Hamlet, in 2006.

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The Tempest, ópera de cámara (2013). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 30 Ago 2019 20:15 
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Ferenc Farkas (1905-2000) Born into a musical family (his father played the cimbalom and his mother played the piano) in Nagykanizsa, Hungary. Farkas began his musical studies in Budapest, at the Protestant Gymnasium (Grammar School) and later attended the Music Academy, where he studied composition with Leó Weiner and Albert Siklós. After his graduation in 1927, he worked as a repetiteur and conductor at the Municipal Theatre of Budapest and collaborated with the Diaghilev Ballet. From 1929 to 1931, he attended Ottorino Respighi's masterclass at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome. The years he spent in Rome had a decisive influence on him. He became acquainted with Italian and Mediterranean culture to which he felt a deep attraction. About this he said: "My principal aim has always been to attain for myself a latin clarity and proportion.". Farkas returned to Budapest in the autumn of 1931. As he could not find any other assignments, he played the piano in various theatre orchestras. In 1932 he met the director Paul Fejos for whom he composed several film scores, first in Hungary, then in Vienna and Copenhagen. This collaboration was to be for Farkas the beginning of an impressive series of “applied” music (music for around 75 films and 44 theatre plays and radio plays).

In the spring of 1934 he conducted research of his own into traditional Hungarian music by collecting folk songs in Somogy County: "When I got back from my travels abroad, it became clear to me that the work and research of Bartók and Kodály raised crucial problems that we as Hungarians, had to resolve ourselves. ". From 1935 he taught at the Budapest City Music School. From 1941-1944 he was professor of composition and director at the Conservatory of Kolozsvàr (today Cluj-Napoca in Romania) and he conducted the city's Opera Chorus. At the end of 1944, because of the war, he had to go back to Hungary. During the siege of Budapest, he worked as the deputy conductor of the Opera Chorus. In 1946, he was sent to Székesfehérvár where he founded and managed the Conservatory. He was nominated professor of composition at the Franz Liszt Music Academy of Budapest in 1949, a post he held until his retirement in 1975. As a professor he was to have his greatest influence in the second half of the century. Among his students were: György Kurtág, György Ligeti, and Miklós Kocsár.

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A Bűvös szekrény, ópera cómica en dos actos (1942). Escena segunda del acto primero.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 06 Sep 2019 20:07 
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Francesco (Franco) Antonio Faccio (1840-1891) Born in Verona in humble circumstances, he early manifested a propensity for music and was admitted to the Milan Conservatory in 1855, where he studied composition with Stefano Ronchetti-Montevito. There he struck up a lifelong friendship with Arrigo Boito, two years his junior. Their first collaboration was a patriotic cantata, Il quattro giugno (1860), inspired by the death in battle of a fellow pupil; Boito supplied the text and some of the music. The reception of this work at the conservatory, on the heels of the liberation of Lombardy, was so enthusiastic that the next year they produced a sequel, Le sorelle d’Italia, a panegyric to nations still under foreign domination. In the patriotic fervour of the times both Boito and Faccio, who were natives of the Veneto (then still in the hands of the Austrians), were received, despite their youth, by the upper echelons of Milanese society, including the famous salon of Countess Maffei. Their precosity, talent and determination to renew the tradition of Italian opera won them such warm support that on the completion of their studies they were awarded 2000 lire each to travel abroad.

Arriving in Paris in the spring of 1862, Faccio and Boito were received, not without irony, by Rossini. Countess Maffei had supplied them with letters of introduction to Verdi. Both were hard at work on operas – Boito on what was to become Mefistofele, and Faccio on the three-act melodramma, I profughi fiamminghi, to a text by Emilio Praga. Faccio was the first to return to Milan, where his work was introduced at La Scala on 11 November 1863. He sought to tap again the euphoric spirit of the times, but this opera achieved only five performances. The reception was cool and there were murmurs of that shibboleth, ‘music of the future’. Faccio’s friends fêted him with a banquet, however, and it was on this occasion that Boito read his ode All’arte italiana that so offended Verdi.

Faccio’s second opera, the four-act Amleto, to an innovatory libretto by Boito, was first performed at the Teatro Carlo Felice, Genoa, on 30 May 1865, where its success was contested. There was some resentment of the self-congratulatory iconoclasm of the youthful collaborators, and dismay at the score’s paucity of melody. The only section to win general approval was Ophelia’s funeral march. In 1866 both Faccio and Boito volunteered to serve under Garibaldi. At the end of their brief duty, Faccio left Italy and for two years honed his skills as an opera conductor in Scandinavia. On the strength of this experience, he was offered a post at the Teatro Carcano on his return to Milan in the autumn of 1868. At this time he was also appointed to teach composition at the conservatory, a post he held for ten years. In 1869 he became Terziani’s assistant as conductor at La Scala, succeeding to the full office in 1871.

He won Verdi’s approval to conduct the Italian première of Aida there (8 February 1872). Henceforth, conducting was to be Faccio’s principal activity, particularly after the miserable failure of his remounted Amleto at La Scala the year before, a fiasco that caused him to renounce the writing of operas. His tenure as principal conductor at La Scala lasted until his collapse in December 1889. The chief glory of his period there was the première of Otello (5 February 1887). Although Verdi’s works dominated the repertory during those years, Faccio also conducted the premières of operas by a number of younger Italian composers, notably Ponchielli (I lituani, La Gioconda and Il figliuol prodigo), Catalani (Dejanice and Edmea) and Puccini (the two-act version of Le villi and Edgar). He also conducted important performances of Der Freischütz and Lohengrin, and presented works by Massenet and Bizet. His last task there was the preparation of the first Italian staging of Die Meistersinger.

Faccio was also active elsewhere. At Brescia in 1872 he conducted the revised Forza del destino to such effect that the survival of the work was assured. At Bologna he made a profound impression with Don Carlos in 1878. The following year he conducted a concert there for the local Società del Quartetto; instrumental conducting would soon become second only to his work in the opera house. He led the local premières of Otello in Rome, Venice and Bologna, as well as in London (5 July 1889). Shaw remembered this last occasion as one of the finest examples of opera conducting in his experience. That there were serious problems with Faccio’s health became apparent the night he insisted there was no third act to Die Meistersinger. To provide him with some relief from the rigours of opera-house routine, Verdi arranged his appointment as director of the Parma Conservatory. He soon proved incapable of coping with even this amount of work, and the faithful Boito accompanied him to Kraft-Ebbing’s Sanitorium at Graz. There, his condition was diagnosed as paralysis associated with tertiary syphilis and he spent the brief remainder of his life in an institution at Monza.

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Amleto, tragedia lírica en cuatro actos (1865). Fragmento del acto cuarto.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 13 Sep 2019 19:22 
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Joan Albert Amargós (*1950) Nació en la ciudad de Barcelona, nieto del compositor Joan Altisent i Ceardi. Estudió música en el Conservatorio Superior de Música del Liceu (de cuyo Departamento de Jazz y Música Moderna es actualmente consejero artístico). Sus primeras obras datan de 1969. Fue fundador del grupo Música Urbana, con el que grabó dos discos. En 1983 compone el Concert popular, estrenado al año siguiente en el Palacio de la Música Catalana por la Banda Municipal de Barcelona dirigida por Albert Argudo. En 1999 se toca en el Teatro Monumental de Madrid el Concierto para clarinete y orquesta con la Orquesta de Radio Televisión Española, dirigida por Tamás Vásáry, y el clarinetista Isaac Rodríguez, previamente estrenado por Walter Boeykens y la Orquesta del Teatre Lliure. Su ópera de cámara Eurídice (Eurídice y los títeres de Caronte), para mezzosoprano y barítono acompañados de violín, violonchelo, contrabajo y bandoneón, y con libreto de Toni Rumbau, fue estrenada el 2 de julio de 2001 en el Convento de los Ángeles de Barcelona con Claudia Schneider y Cristina Zavalloni como mezzos y Marc Canturri y Enric Martínez-Castignani como barítonos. El propio Amargós dirigió para la ocasión a la Orquesta Barcelona 216, encargándose de la escenografía José Menchero, de la dirección escénica Luca Valentino y de la manipulación de los títeres el libretista, Toni Rumbau. Por encargo de Richard Rimbert, clarinetista solista de la Orquesta de Burdeos, compone el Atlantic Trio, para violín, clarinete y piano, que se estrena el 10 de mayo de 2003 en la escuela de música Guildhall School of Music and Drama de Londres con el violinista Stephane Rougier, el pianista Hervé N´Kaoua y Rimbert al clarinete.

En 2004 compone, nuevamente con texto de Toni Rumbau, L´Assemblea dels infants (Cantata per a nens), obra para coro de niños de entre ocho y doce años acompañado por una orquesta de cámara de nueve instrumentos (piano, percusión, trompeta, dos trompas, trombón, trombón bajo, violín y contrabajo). La obra fue estrenada en el Auditorio de Barcelona el 9 de mayo de 2005. En 2005 compone el Northern Concerto para flauta dulce y orquesta, que es nominado para un Premio Grammy y recibe el Premio de la Música como "Autor de Música Clásica". En 23 de enero de 2006 estrena en el Auditorio de Barcelona, con la Orquesta Nacional de Cambra d´Andorra dirigida por Gerard Claret, La Pastoreta, obra basada en variaciones sobre la conocida melodía popular catalana homónima. El estreno es para una orquesta de cuerda con doce violines, seis violas, cuatro violonchelos y dos contrabajos, aunque también se puede interpretar con una orquesta menor. En 2006 compone, por encargo de las pianistas Katia y Marielle Labèque, Las morillas que me enamoran y Variaciones sobre un zorongo, composiciones para piano a cuatro manos y contralto, que se estrenarán el 30 de marzo del año siguiente en el Teatro Comunale de Treviso (Italia). También en 2006 escribe otras tres composiciones dedicadas a las Hermanas Labèque: Las morillas de Jaén, Anda jaleo y Zorongo (las dos últimas para dos pianos y voz), y Jocs Florals, obra para coro de hombres solistas (cuatro tenores, cuatro barítonos y cuatro bajos) y órgano, estrenada el 19 de octubre en la iglesia de Santa María del Mar de Barcelona. En octubre de 2007 estrena en el Teatre Nacional de Catalunya, de nuevo con libreto de Toni Rumbau, la ópera El salón de Anubis. El 13 de abril de 2008 dirige en Barcelona el estreno de su Concierto para saxo alto y orquesta de cámara, con Albert Julià y la Orquestra de Cambra de Granollers.

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Eurídice (Eurídice y los títeres de Caronte), ópera en un acto (2001). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 20 Sep 2019 20:41 
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Jerónimo Francisco de Lima (1743-1822). He was born in Lisbon. He studied at the Seminário da Patriarcal in Lisbon, and from 1761 to 1767 at the Conservatorio di S Onofrio a Capuana in Naples, together with João de Sousa Carvalho. On his return to Lisbon he was appointed organist and mestre at the Seminário da Patriarcal and began to write in a variety of genres, including serenatas and drammi per musica da cantarsi written for court or private performance. Among them was Le nozze d’Ercole e d’Ebe, given in 1785 at the Spanish Ambassador’s palace in Lisbon to celebrate a double wedding between the Spanish and Portuguese royal families. In 1787 he was in the service of the English writer William Beckford during the latter’s stay in Sintra, near Lisbon, and his music is favourably mentioned by Beckford, who, however, was not pleased with the £200 bill that Lima presented on his departure. He was also composing much sacred music and replaced Carvalho as primeiro mestre de capela of the Seminário in 1798. Lima’s two three-act drammi giocosi were first performed during Carnival at the court’s winter palace at Salvaterra de Magos: Lo spirito di contradizione in 1772, and La vera costanza in 1785. Lo spirito di contradizione, which was revived at the Teatro de S Carlos in Lisbon in 1985, reveals in its accompanied recitatives and rich orchestration the possible influence of Jommelli, the favourite composer of the Lisbon court.

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Teseo, dramma per musica da cantarsi (1783). Aria: Dall’a speme, dall’amore.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 27 Sep 2019 18:42 
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Geminiano Giacomelli (sometimes Jacomelli) (1692-1740) Giacomelli was born in Piacenza. In his early years in Parma he studied singing, counterpoint and keyboard with G.M. Capelli, maestro di cappella of the cathedral. The story of his being sent to study with Alessandro Scarlatti in 1724, and afterwards being in the service of Charles VI in Vienna was doubted by Eitner, and there is little evidence to support either contention: Scarlatti died in October 1725, and the opera L’Arrenione, supposed to have been composed for the Viennese court, is not by Giacomelli. From 1719 to 1727 and from 1732 to 1737 Giacomelli was maestro di cappella of the court of Parma and the church of the Madonna della Steccata, serving jointly with his aged teacher Capelli; in the intervening years (1727–1732) he held the same position at S Giovanni in Piacenza. In 1737 he directed performances of his opera Cesare in Egitto in Graz before succeeding Tommaso Redi as maestro di cappella of the Santa Casa, Loreto, on 24 November 1738. The announcement of his death, discovered by Tebaldini, states that he died at about 48 while still serving at Loreto. Giacomelli wrote 19 operas for various Italian cities; his most successful was Cesare in Egitto (1735). The set of intermezzos, Golpone e Birina, performed in Rome for Carnival 1739 with his Achille in Aulide, were written by Fini and Zanetti for Venice in 1732, not by Giacomelli. He also composed two oratorios and many sacred compositions of which only a few survive. Giacomelli seems to have been highly esteemed by his contemporaries; Benedetto Marcello published Giacomelli’s letter of recommendation in the preface to volume seven of his Estro poetico-armonico (Venice, 1724–6/R).

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Lucio Papirio dittatore, opera seria en tres actos (1729). Aria: Dirò quel sangue degno.

Merope, opera seria en tres actos (1734). Aria: Sposa, non mi conosci?

Cesare in Egitto, dramma per musica en tres actos (1735). Aria: Alla fastosa, superba Roma.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 04 Oct 2019 17:07 
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William Mayer (1925-2017) Mayer was born in New York City, the son of Dorothy (née Ehrich) and John C. Mayer. He entered Yale University in 1944, but his college years were interrupted by military service (he served as a counter-intelligence agent in US-occupied Japan). Upon his discharge he re-entered Yale and graduated in 1949, then trained at the Juilliard School and the Mannes College of Music, studying with Roger Sessions and Felix Salzer, and later with Otto Luening, Emanuel Balaban and Izler Solomon. The composer has written three stage works in addition to his prize-winning A Death in the Family, and a variety of orchestral, chamber, choral and vocal works. John Rockwell of The New York Times points out that Mayer is "especially known for his operas and songs ... his work sings out with real beauty, both in the vocal writing and the instrumental settings."

Distinguished artists have introduced his scores: Robert De Cormier led the New York Choral Society in its Lincoln Center premiere of Spring Came on Forever; sopranos Heidi Grant Murphy, Eleanor Steber and Christine Brewer have all premiered vocal-chamber works; and Leopold Stokowski (at eighty-eight) conducted Mayer's piano concerto Octagon at Carnegie Hall with William Masselos as soloist. Mayer taught composition and orchestration at Boston University; was a guest lecturer at Yale, Columbia, the Pratt Institute and the Juilliard School; fulfilled writing and cultural assignments from the US Information Agency, one of which involved preparing lectures on American chamber opera to be delivered abroad; served on judging panels for the MacDowell Colony, the American Composers Orchestra, Composers Recordings, Inc., the National Opera Association and the National Federation of Music Clubs; and was Composer-in-Residence at the Conductors' Institute and Adirondack New Music Festival. Mayer is the author of a provocative feature for The New York Times entitled "Live Composers, Dead Audiences".

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A death in the family, ópera en tres actos (1983). Fragmento

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 11 Oct 2019 18:50 
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Hans (Johannes Wolfgang) Zender (*1936) Born in Wiesbaden, Zender studied piano, conducting, and composition (the latter with Wolfgang Fortner) at the Hochschule für Musik Frankfurt and at the Hochschule für Musik Freiburg, from 1956 to 1959. From 1959 to 1963 he was Kapellmeister of the Theater Freiburg, then principal conductor at the Theater Bonn. In 1964–1965 he attended the Second Cologne Courses for New Music at the Rheinische Musikhochschule, under the artistic direction of Karlheinz Stockhausen. In 1968 he was called to Kiel, where he was Generalmusikdirektor (GMD) of the Opernhaus Kiel until 1972. The same year, he also became principal conductor of the Radio Symphony Orchestra in Saarbrücken. In 1984, Zender became head of the Hamburg State Opera and GMD of the orchestra there. From 1987 to 1990, he was chief conductor of the Chamber Orchestra of Radio Netherlands in Hilversum. Since 1999, he has been permanent guest conductor of the SWR Symphonieorchester, the orchestra of the Southwest German Radio (SWR) in Baden-Baden and Freiburg. From 1988 until 2000, Zender taught composition at the Hochschule für Musik und Darstellende Kunst in Frankfurt am Main. In 1997, he was awarded the Goethe Prize of Frankfurt. Invited by Walter Fink, he was in 2011 the 21st composer featured in the annual Komponistenporträt of the Rheingau Musik Festival. Music included denn wiederkommen (Hölderlin lesen III) for string quartet and speaking voice (1991) and Mnemosyne (Hölderlin lesen IV) for female voice, string quartet, and tape (2000), performed by Salome Kammer and the Athena Quartet.

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Stephen Climax, ópera en tres actos (1979–1984). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
NotaPublicado: 18 Oct 2019 18:59 
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Ivan Zajc (1832-1914) Ivan Dragutin Stjepan Zajc was born in Fiume, modern-day Rijeka, Croatia. His family migrated from Bratislava, Slovakia; his father, Johann Zaytz, was of Czech descent, and his mother, Anna Bodensteiner was of German descent. His musical talent was evident very early on in his life, as he began to study the piano and violin at the age of five, performed in public by the age of six, and even began to compose his own music by the age of twelve. Nevertheless, despite his early musical success, his military bandmaster father was opposed to the idea of a career in music and wanted him to study law instead following the completion of his secondary education. In the end, Zajc's professors prevailed and he entered the Milan Conservatory in 1850 with his father's consent. Zajc studied in Milan from 1850 to 1855, under the supervision of Stefano Ronchetti-Monteviti (counterpoint and composition), Alberto Mazzucato (orchestration), and Lauro Rossi (dramatic music). During this period, Zajc took his studies very seriously and regularly won prizes as one of the conservatory's most talented students. He was awarded first prize at his graduation examination for the opera La Tirolese (1855), which was performed on stage in the same year. Zajc's future as a composer and conductor in Milan was secure, but the death of his parents in the meantime forced him to return to Rijeka.

Back home, he accepted the post of conductor and concert master of the Town Theatre Orchestra, taught stringed instruments at the Philharmonic Institute, and simultaneously wrote numerous compositions with his characteristic speed and ease. In 1860, his opera Amelia ossia Il Bandito was met with great success, though two years later, after a prolonged illness, Zajc chose to move to Vienna, where opera and theatre were flourishing. His eight-year stay there (1862–1870) was marked by further success, though he settled for composing operettas rather than operas. His first Viennese work, Mannschaft an Bord (1863), was enormously well received and his later operettas only served to strengthen his growing reputation. Yet it was in Vienna that Zajc became involved with the Croatian academic society Velebit and frequently met with young Croatian students. Influenced by such Croatian cultural figures as bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer and poets Petar Preradović, Ivan Trnski, August Šenoa, and Matija Divković, Zajc chose patriotism over world fame and returned to Croatia.

Upon his arrival in Zagreb in 1870, Zajc was presented with two posts: director and conductor of the Croatian Opera and director and teacher at the Croatian Institute of Music. It was during this period that Zajc made his colossal contribution to Croatian musical culture, not only through his compositions, but also through his leadership in reorganizing Zagreb's musical institutions. He was also an excellent vocal teacher and succeeded in training several prominent singers. Zajc was an exceptionally prolific composer as evidenced by almost 1000 works, from Op. 234 to Op. 1202, produced during his time in Zagreb. Included in this number are Mislav (1870), Ban Leget (1872), his masterpiece Nikola Šubić Zrinski (1876), and Lizinka (1878), in addition to operettas, musical comedies, cantatas, songs and choral compositions, concerti, chamber music, and many other works. Zajc's appointment at the opera was held until 1889, when owing to financial difficulties the organization lapsed for a time, but Zajc retained his post at the school until 1908, when he finally retired. He is credited with reviving Croatian music during a period of musical stagnation after the collapse of the Illyrian Movement and raising it to the artistic level where it stands today.

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Nikola Šubić Zrinski, ópera en tres actos (1876). Fragmento.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Daniele da Castrovillari (1613-1678) He was born in Cosenza. La Borde described him as a Franciscan friar and a theorist; according to Nicola Papini he was for many years an organist at Ferrara Cathedral but local studies have not yet confirmed this. He was active as an organist in Venice, however, and is probably the ‘Fra Daniele’ who played the principal organ at S Antonio in Padua in 1674. Three operas written for Venice are attributed to him. The first, Gl'avvenimenti d'Orinda (1660), was performed at the Teatro di SS Giovanni e Paolo. In the following year Castrovillari formed an association with the production team at the Teatro di S Luca, newly dedicated to opera, and two more of his operas were performed there: La Pasife (1661) and La Cleopatra (1662, text by Giacomo dall'Angelo). He was prepared to compose an opera for the next season but his talents were passed over in favour of a revival of an opera by Cesti. Only La Cleopatra survives. It places Castrovillari in the generation after Cavalli, close in style to P.A. Ziani. The score includes many concerted arias, some of them requiring considerable vocal agility, and a lament of unusually large dimensions. The music is not of high quality and in places is rather awkward. In 1662 Castrovillari also composed some vocal music intended for the Duke of Mantua and it appears that two books of his cantatas are lost. The composer G.B. Bassani is said to have been taught in Padua by a certain Castrovillari and, according to Antoine Vidal, a Franciscan by that name, active in Padua around 1650, wrote music for the violin.

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La Cleopatra, drama en un prólogo y tres actos (1662). Aria: A dio regni, a dio scettri.

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 Asunto: Re: La otra ópera
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Donnacha Dennehy (*1970) He was born in Dublin. He read music at Trinity College, Dublin, and graduated with a first-class honours degree. He continued his studies in music at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), with support from a Fulbright Scholarship, and earned his master's and doctoral degrees at UIUC. His post-doctoral musical period included a stint at IRCAM, with Gérard Grisey, and studies in the Netherlands with Louis Andriessen. In 1997, Dennehy returned to Dublin, and subsequently co-founded the Crash Ensemble, which focuses on the performance and recording of contemporary music. His works for the Crash Ensemble include Junk Box Fraud, Derailed, and For Herbert Brun. He later returned to Trinity College Dublin as a lecturer in music. His 2005 work for chorus and orchestra, Hive, displays his developing interest in microtones and harmonies based on harmonic spectra. His composition Grá Agus Bás, which was premiered in February 2007, incorporated music from the sean nós tradition and was a collaboration with the Irish vocalist Iarla Ó Lionáird. He is a member of Aosdána, Ireland's state-sponsored academy of artists. Dennehy was a visiting scholar at Princeton University from 2012 onwards. He served as composer-in-residence for the Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra in 2013/14. In the fall of 2014, he joined the faculty of the music department at Princeton University.

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The Last Hotel, opera (2015). Fragmento.

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Willem Frederik Johannes Pijper (1894-1947) Pijper was born at Zeist, near Utrecht, of strict Calvinist working-class parents. His father, who sometimes played psalm accompaniments on the harmonium, taught him the names of the notes of the treble clef when he was five. Willem subsequently discovered the use of sharps and flats and began composing simple melodies. His fascination with symmetrical musical structures was evident even at this early age. At ten he began formal piano lessons and made rapid progress. Poor health as a child meant that he was educated at home until age 13, but in 1912, after three years study at the gymnasium (high school), Pijper entered the Utrecht Academy of Music, where he was taught composition by Johan Wagenaar, passing examinations in theoretical subjects in 1915. Apart from his brief study with Wagenaar he was entirely self-taught as a composer.

Pijper occasionally gave piano recitals, but his activity as a critic was of greater importance. At the end of the First World War, he became a critic for the Utrechtsch Dagblad, and in that capacity was at least partly responsible for the departure of Jan van Gilse, then chief conductor of the Utrechts Stedelijk Orkest. Pijper’s constant vitriolic (and often ad hominem) attacks upon Van Gilse forced the latter to demand the orchestra board to refuse Pijper at concerts; after the board had stalled the issue for some time, Van Gilse resigned in 1921. Pijper has since been criticised for his role in the affair, also because his combined functions of critic and advisor for the Tivoli concert hall at least suggested a conflict of interest. In 1926, with Paul F. Sanders, he established the periodical De Muziek, to which he contributed many essays. Collections of his essays were published by Querido under the title De Quintencirckel and De Stemvork. Pijper spent much of his time during the war years working on a new opera, Merlijn, based on the Arthurian legend. Although he worked on the project for over six years, the work was never completed. In late 1946, he was diagnosed with cancer. During the closing weeks of his life he rewrote the orchestration to his Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra.

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Merlijn, drama sinfónico en tres actos (1939–1942). Fragmento.

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